Sunday, April 26, 2020

Install Apache On Ubuntu Linux

Install the Apache web server on Ubuntu Linux. You will need to be able to install software and start services, so this example uses a Linux account with full sudo. In this example the Linux user name is "testuser".

$ lsb_release -a
No LSB modules are available.
Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description:    Ubuntu 18.04.4 LTS
Release:        18.04
Codename:       bionic


$ hostname -I
192.168.0.9


$ sudo ufw status
Status: inactive


# Update package list and install Apache.

$ sudo apt update
...
Fetched 2,854 kB in 2s (1,395 kB/s)
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
All packages are up to date.

$ sudo apt install apache2
...
Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/apache2.service → /lib/systemd/system/apache2.service.
Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/apache-htcacheclean.service → /lib/systemd/system/apache-htcacheclean.service.
...

# Note the screen output shows symlinks in the configuration directories for the system services.
 

# Let's see what was is running.
$ systemctl status apache2.service
● apache2.service - The Apache HTTP Server
   Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/apache2.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
  Drop-In: /lib/systemd/system/apache2.service.d
           └─apache2-systemd.conf
   Active: active (running) since Sun 2020-04-26 12:08:28 MDT; 2min 6s ago
 Main PID: 29916 (apache2)
    Tasks: 55 (limit: 4915)
   CGroup: /system.slice/apache2.service
           ├─29916 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
           ├─29918 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
           └─29919 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start



# Use a web browser to go to the machine name or IP address.
# Earlier you found the IP address by typing "hostname -I".



# It is kind of the developers and package maintainers to make the home a set of instructions! 

# The instructions tell the path to index.html. Let's explore it.
$ cd /var/www/html
$ ls -l
total 12
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10918 Apr 26 12:08 index.html

# Being owned by root, we can guess an "apache" unix logon was not created.
$ grep apa /etc/passwd
# Nothing found. Also look at last line of /etc/passwd for a new entry.
$ tail -1 /etc/passwd

# If software has errors, bugs, and security holes, and attacker may exploit those
# and possibly gain access as the user which is running the software.
# The apache software is being run as root. It had better be perfect software!
# Let's look further.

$ ps -ef | grep apache
root     29916     1  0 12:08 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
www-data 29918 29916  0 12:08 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
www-data 29919 29916  0 12:08 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/apache2


# Processes are running both as root and as the pre-existing unix logon www-data.

# Let's see if www-data is a less-privileged account than root
$ groups www-data
www-data : www-data
$ sudo grep www /etc/sudoers

# No output from grep, so it looks like www-data doesn't have sudo. This is good.
# To open a listening connection on a "low numbered port", you typically need to be root.
# Maybe that is why part of the web server is started as root.
# This is something to further explore.

# For now, let's change the static web page served from the file index.html.
$ cd /var/www/html
$ ls -l
total 12
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10918 Apr 26 12:08 index.html
$ sudo cp index.html index.html.orig
$ ls -l
total 24
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10918 Apr 26 12:08 index.html
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10918 Apr 26 12:29 index.html.orig


# Edit the file and add some text.  When editing the file, search for "welcome" and change the text.
$ sudo vi index.html
# You may want to add text such as:
“I'm a greater believer in luck, and I find the harder I work the more I have of it.”
<a href="https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/jefferson">Thomas Jefferson</a>


# Reload your web browser to see your changes.



# Verify that systemctl is set up properly to start and stop the web server.
$ sudo systemctl stop apache2.service
$ ps -ef|grep apac
testuser       32236 28823  0 14:58 pts/0    00:00:00 grep apac


$ sudo systemctl start apache2.service
$ ps -ef | grep apac
root     32262     1  0 14:58 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
www-data 32264 32262  0 14:58 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
www-data 32265 32262  0 14:58 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
testuser       32327 28823  0 14:58 pts/0    00:00:00 grep apac
$ systemctl status apache2.service
● apache2.service - The Apache HTTP Server
   Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/apache2.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
  Drop-In: /lib/systemd/system/apache2.service.d
           └─apache2-systemd.conf
   Active: active (running) since Sun 2020-04-26 14:58:53 MDT; 17s ago
  Process: 32214 ExecStop=/usr/sbin/apachectl stop (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Process: 32242 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/apachectl start (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 32262 (apache2)
    Tasks: 55 (limit: 4915)
   CGroup: /system.slice/apache2.service
           ├─32262 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
           ├─32264 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
           └─32265 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start

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